Nose bleeds are often the result of common events, usually trauma, but nose bleeds can be a warning of other problems. Nose bleeds are caused by a small blood vessel rupturing. There are two main types of nose bleed, upper and lower septum nose bleeds.
Lower nose bleeds
Most nose bleeds occur within the lower end of the nose in the lower septum. The septum is the semi-rigid wall separating the two channels of the nose that contain blood vessels. These blood vessels lie close to the surface, making them susceptible to injury. Lower nose bleeds do not usually require medical attention unless the bleeding cannot be stopped or it happens in the very young.
Causes of lower end nose bleeds
The most common cause of nose bleeds is trauma. A blow, smack, or sometimes just picking the nose. Dryness inside of the nose can also cause bleeding. High altitudes, colds, allergies and medications are all responsible for nose bleeds.
Treatment of lower end nose bleeds
Sit up straight and pinch the nostrils together firmly for 10 minutes.
You can place a cold compress or an ice pack across the bridge of your nose.
Vaseline can be used if the cause of the nose bleed is dryness.
When the bleeding stops do not jump up and down, take things easy, do not blow your nose or it will dislodge the clot and will probably start your nose bleed again.
If a nose bleed does not stop after 10 to 20 minutes of direct pressure.
More urgent medical attention is required if;
Upper septum nose bleeds
Upper septum nose bleeds are much more rare. Bleeding begins high within the nose and blood flows down the back of the mouth and throat even when the person is sitting up or standing. These nose bleeds can be very serious and do require urgent medical attention.
Causes of upper septum nose bleeds
Treatment of upper septum nose bleeds
Treatment is initially the same as for lower end nose bleeds. Your doctor may have pack the nose with gauze or an inflatable latex balloon if the bleeding does not stop. Cauterization of the bleeding blood vessel may be required. This involves an electrical or heated device to burn the ruptured blood vessel to stop the bleeding. The doctor uses a local anaesthetic before he or she begins this procedure.